Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure

Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM):

The Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure assesses parents’ cultural socialization behaviors with their young children. The CSBM was created by adapting several items from the Familial Ethnic Socialization Measure (FESM; Umaña-Taylor, 2001; Umaña-Taylor et al., 2004) to be applicable to parents with young children. A full description of the development of this scale can be found in Derlan et al., (2016). The scale includes 12 items that are scored on a five-point Likert scale.

Item Response Options and Scoring:

Parents/guardians are asked to think about the ways they have taught their child about his/her/their ethnic/cultural background. The response options are (1) Not at all (2) A little (3) Sometimes (4) A lot (5) Very Much. Sample items include “I tell my child about famous people from our ethnic/cultural background who have done good things and have represented our culture well” and “My home is decorated with things that reflect our ethnic/cultural background.” Items are scored such that higher scores indicate higher engagement in cultural socialization behaviors with children. See full list of items below.

Psychometric Properties:

Exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-factor solution and supported longitudinal invariance, convergent validity with ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution, and discriminant validity with adolescents’ risky behaviors (Derlan et al., 2016). Studies have shown Cronbach’s alphas ranging from .86 to .91 in English (Williams et al., 2018) and .89 in Spanish (Williams et al., 2017). 

Ethnic-Racial Groups Assessed:

The CSBM has been used with Mexican-origin mothers in the United States, and has been administered in Spanish and English (Derlan et al., 2016; Williams et al., 2017).

Using the CSMB with Diverse Populations:

Some of the CSBM items include examples in parentheses that are specific to Mexican-origin culture; these examples can be omitted for the measure to be applicable to samples that include multiple ethnic-racial groups. In addition, for ethnic-racial homogenous samples, the examples can be revised to be specific to the ethnic-racial group of interest. Finally, for studies that do not focus on Latino populations, Item 4 can be revised by omitting the clause “that are in Spanish or” to make the item applicable to non-Latino ethnic-racial groups (Derlan et al., 2016, p. 489).

How to cite this measure:

Derlan, C. L, Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Jahromi, L. B., Updegraff, K. A. (2016). Measuring cultural socialization attitudes and behaviors of Mexican-origin mothers with young children: A longitudinal investigation. Family Relations, 65, 477–489. doi: 10.1111/fare.12196.


Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2018). Cultural socialization attitudes and behaviors: Examining mothers’ centrality, discrimination experiences, and children’s effortful control as moderators. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(2), 162–172.

Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2001). Ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin Latino adolescents living in the U.S. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia.

Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Yazedjian, A., & Bámaca-Gómez, M. Y. (2004). Developing the Ethnic Identity Scale using Eriksonian and Social Identity perspectives. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4, 9-38.

Williams, C., Umaña-Taylor, A., Updegraff, K., & Jahromi, L. (2017). Longitudinal relations among Mexican-origin mothers' cultural characteristics, cultural socialization, and 5-year-old children's ethnic-racial identification. Developmental Psychology, 53(11), 2078-2091. 10.1037/dev0000386.

Williams, C. D., Bravo, D. Y., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., Jahromi, L. B., Martinez-Fuentes, S., & Elias, M. d. J. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of cultural socialization and effects on young children’s developmental competencies among Mexican-origin families. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

Scale Instructions:

Instructions:  Now I would like you to think about things you may have done in the past year to teach your child about his/her ethnic/cultural background. Please tell me how much each of the following statements applies to you.

Instrucciones: Ahora me gustaría que piense en cosas que quizás haya hecho durante el año pasado para enseñarle a su hijo/a acerca de su origen étnico/cultural. Por favor dígame cuánto aplica para usted cada una de las siguientes oraciones.




1. I involve my child in activities that are specific to our ethnic/cultural group (e.g., playing traditional games like “Lotería,” cooking traditional foods like “tamales”).

1. Involucro a mi hijo/a en actividades que son específicas a nuestro grupo étnico/cultural. (e.g., jugar juegos tradicionales como “Lotería,” cocinar comidas típicas como “tamales”).

2. I involve my child in celebrations, holidays, or religious events that are specific to our ethnic/cultural group.

2. Involucro a mi hijo/a en celebraciones, días festivos o eventos religiosos que son específicos a nuestro grupo étnico/cultural.

3. I take my child to concerts, plays, festivals, or other events where our ethnic/cultural background is represented.

3. Llevo a mi hijo/a a conciertos, obras teatrales, festivales u otros eventos donde se representa nuestro origen étnico/cultural

4. I show my child television programs or videos that are in Spanish or that include people from our ethnic/cultural background.

4. Le muestro a mi hijo/a programas de televisión o videos en español, o donde aparecen personas de nuestro origen étnico/cultural.

5. I read books to my child in which people from our ethnic/cultural background are represented.

5. Le leo a mi hijo/a libros en los que personas de nuestro origen étnico/cultural son representadas.

6. I buy toys for my child that represent our ethnic/cultural background.

6. Le compro a mi hijo/a juguetes que representan nuestro origen étnico/cultural.

7. I teach my child about the values and beliefs of our ethnic/cultural background (e.g., respecting grandparents, having good manners).

7. Le enseño a mi hijo/a acerca de los valores y las creencias de nuestro origen étnico/cultural (e.g., respetar a los abuelos, tener buenos modales).

8. I teach my child about our ethnic/cultural group.

8. Le enseño a mi hijo/a acerca de nuestro grupo étnico/cultural.

9. I tell my child about famous people from our ethnic/cultural background who have done good things and have represented our culture well (e.g., Cesar Chavez, Hidalgo and Benito Juarez, Selena, el Chicharito, Oscar de la Hoya).

9. Le platico a mi hijo/a acerca de personas famosas de nuestro origen étnico/cultural, que han hecho cosas buenas y han representado bien a nuestra cultura (e.g., Cesar Chavez, Hidalgo y Benito Juarez, Selena, el Chicarito, Oscar de la Hoya).

10. I take my child to parties or family gatherings where there are people from our ethnic/cultural background.

10. Llevo a mi hijo/a a fiestas o reuniones familiares donde hay personas que comparten nuestro origen étnico/cultural.

11. My home is decorated with things that reflect our ethnic/cultural background.

11. Mi casa está decorada con cosas que reflejan nuestro origen étnico/cultural

12. I tell my child about the history of our ancestors (e.g., when they came to the U.S., what their life was like in Mexico).

12. Le cuento a mi hijo/a sobre la historia de nuestros antepasados (e.g., cuando llegaron a los Estados Unidos, como era la vida en México).